Since the start of the peace negotiations in 2016, the Principals – President Nyusi, and the leaders of Renamo, the late Afonso Dhlakama and his successor Ossufo Momade, have provided guidance and leadership to the process, steering it at each critical juncture. They jointly agreed the implementation structures to support the different phases of the process. These structures (detailed below), comprising both Government and Renamo officials, helped embed national ownership and build consensus on key issues.
At the official launch of the national peace process on 1 March 2017, the Principals put in place the following key structures to work on the contested issues of decentralisation and military affairs;
A Commission on Decentralisation was established to design a proposal for a new framework for decentralisation. The Commission made proposals related to the election of governors and the model of allocation of revenues among other issues.
- Government – Albano Macie, Eduardo Alexandre Chiziane, Bruno Marques
- Renamo – Saimone Macuiana, Maria Joaquina, Antônio João Bassiquete
A Commission on Military Affairs was established to work on the creation of non-partisan security services along with an effective DDR process.
- Government – Armando Alexandre Panguene, Ismael Mussa Mangueira, João Laimone Machatine
- Renamo – André Joaquim Magibire, Leovilgildo Buanancasso, Arlindo da Costa
A Joint Monitoring and Verification Team was established to oversee adherence to the ceasefire and investigate reports of conflicts as a confidence building measure.
- Government – Colonel Borge Nordino, Colonel Zeca Mulatinho Cebolinho, Chief Superintendent Lobreiro Napoleao, Lieutenant-Colonel Viriato Alberto Tamele
- Renamo – Major General João Jone Buca, Brigadier Brito Caetano Colete, Major Carlos Esquinar Chumbo, Lieutenant Colonel Augusto Pahiwa
A Contact Group was formed and tasked with providing coordinated financial and technical assistance to the process. It was chaired by then Swiss Ambassador to Mozambique, Mirko Manzoni.
- Ambassadors of Switzerland, US, China, Norway, Botswana, Great Britain and the EU.
International experts were appointed to provide technical assistance to the commissions.
- Commission on Military Affairs – Julian Hottinger and Buenaventura Pascual (with the support of Georg Stein)
- Commission on Decentralisation – Chaloka Beyani and Muna Ndulo (with the support of Willis Otieno).
With national ownership at its centre, the process made significant advances including an indefinite truce which was announced in May 2017. This was a significant confidence building measure which built trust between both Parties. Within one year, an agreement was reached on one of the key issues of decentralisation, which led to a revision of the constitution in May 2018.
Reaching this milestone was not easy, and it involved extended months of negotiations, support of external technical advisors and numerous revisions to the key documents. It was further complicated by the unexpected death of Renamo leader Afonso Dhlakama on 3rd May 2018. Extensive discussions had been held prior to Dhlakama’s death but little had been put down on paper. The mediators worked diligently with the Renamo leadership to bring his successor, Ossufo Momade, up to speed. The fact that the decentralization reforms were agreed upon so soon after Dhlakama’s death is testament to the wider commitment of Renamo to achieve peace.
With progress made on decentralisation, the peace process moved to its next phase. On 6 August 2018, the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding on Military Affairs, committed both Government and Renamo to advance on the central issue of disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR). The Principals agreed to a similar structure to support implementation of the agreement. It had the following key components (all of which are active today):
The Military Affairs Commission (MAC) has the overall responsibility to supervise and monitor the implementation of the DDR and Placement. The MAC compromises members of both Government and Renamo.
- Government – the late General Eugénio Ussene Mussa, 1st Deputy Commissioner (of PRM) Paulo Chachine, Colonel Manuela De Oliveira
- Renamo – André Magibire, António Augusto Eduardo Namburete, Leovigildo Buanancasso,
In the fulfilment of their duties, the MAC are assisted by specialized Joint Technical Groups, namely:
The Joint Technical Group on Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (JTGDDR) comprising of six national experts whose role is to provide technical assistance to the Technical Group, particularly, with regards to monitoring disarmament. They are appointed by their respective parties.
- Government – Brigadier Anastácio Barassa, Chief Superintendent (of PRM) Sansão Jossias Sigauque, Colonel Gabriel Macha
- Renamo – Major General David Gomes, Brigadier Domingos Joaquim, Colonel Evaristo Massave
- The International Component, comprising of military experts from nine countries, supports the work of the JTGDDR:
o Argentina – Brigadier General Javier Perez Aquino
o Germany – Captain Laurentius Wedeniwski;
o India – Colonel Shashi Ghildhiyal;
o Ireland – Colonel David Hathaway;
o Norway – Senior Advisor William J. Hovland;
o Switzerland – Colonel Markus Josef Schefer;
o Tanzania – Colonel Mmsa Rajabo Msuya;
o United States – Major Melanie Fuata;
o Zimbabwe – General Ronnie Mutizhe.
The Joint Technical Group on Monitoring and Verification are responsible for the monitoring and verification of DDR processes.
- Government – Colonel Borge Nordino, Colonel Zeca Cebolinho, Chief Superintendent (of PRM) Lobreiro Napoleão, Colonel Viriato Tamele
- Renamo – Major General João Jone Buca, Major General Martinho Corrente Macanhaduwa, Brigadier Brito Caetano Colete, Brigadier Joaquim Vergonha, Lieutenant Colonel Augusto Pahiwa
The Joint Technical Group (JTGP) on Placement in the FADM, which comprises two officers from each Party, appointed by the two Principals.
• Government – Brigadier Luciano Barbosa, Colonel Fidelino Rajabo Anselmo
• Renamo – Brigadier David Munongoro, Vacant
(Post-conflict phase): With the signing of the Maputo Accord for Peace and National Reconciliation on 6 August 2019, the process entered its third phase, a post-conflict one. The Principals agreed to put in place additional structures to support the ongoing work of the DDR structures put in place during phase 2.
The signatories, namely, His Excellency Filipe Jacinto Nyusi, President of the Republic of Mozambique and His Excellency Ossufo Momade, President of Renamo, are responsible for the political leadership and oversight of the implementation of the Agreement.
- Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General of the United Nations
The Personal Envoy of the Secretary General of the United Nations and the then Ambassador of Switzerland in Mozambique, Mirko Manzoni, is responsible for facilitating the dialogue between the Government of Mozambique and Renamo, as well as the implementation of the Agreement.
- Contact Group
1. The Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Mirko Manzoni, chairs the previously established Contact Group.
2. The Contact Group shall be responsible for: a) encouraging the parties to the dialogue to implement the Agreement in full; and b) assisting the Parties in mobilising resources and support for the successful implementation of the Agreement;
1. The Secretariat is an autonomous unit with the mission of providing technical and administrative support, providing assistance to the Parties in the implementation of the Agreement.
2. The Secretariat shall also provide logistical support to the whole process and manage the Basket Fund to Support the Implementation of the Agreement.
1. The Board comprises:
1. The Personal Envoy of the Secretary-General of the United Nations;
2. A representative of UNOPS (United Nations Office of Project Services); and
3. A representative of the donors.
2. The Board shall be responsible for guiding the Secretariat in the performance of its functions.
• Basket Fund to Support the Implementation of the Agreement
The Basket Fund to Support the Implementation of the Maputo Peace and Reconciliation Agreement is established, and any support provided by the International Community to the Peace and Reconciliation Process shall be directed to said Fund.