Maputo Accord for Peace and National Reconciliation
On 6 August 2019, President Filipe Nyusi and the President of Renamo Ossufo Momade, signed the Maputo Accord for Peace and National Reconciliation in Maputo. The Accord consists of the Agreement on the Definitive Cessation of Military Hostilities signed on 1 August 2019 and outlines the structures for the implementation of the Accord.
The Accord commits both parties to put an end to all political and military hostilities and to implement, in full, the legislative package on decentralisation. It further commits to the complete Disarmament, Demobilisation and subsequent socio-economic Reintegration of Renamo former combatants and includes provisions for the placement of former combatants in the Mozambique Armed Defence Forces (FADM) structure and in the units of the Police of the Republic of Mozambique (PRM).
The signing ceremony was witnessed by the President of Namibia and Acting Chairperson of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), Hage Geingob; the President of Rwanda, Paul Kagame; Former President of Mozambique, Joaquim Chissano; Former President of Tanzania, Jakaya Kikwete; the President of the Contact Group, Mirko Manzoni, and; the Representative of the Community of Sant’Egidio, Matteo Zupp.
Agreement on the Definitive Cessation of Military Hostilities
On 1 August 2019, President Filipe Nyusi and the President of Renamo Ossufo Momade signed the Agreement on the Definitive Cessation of Military Hostilities in Gorongosa National Park. The agreement builds on the MoU on Military Affairs signed in August 2018, with both parties reaffirming their desire to see a future of peace and reconciliation in Mozambique and prioritisation of dialogue as a means for settling grievances.
Memorandum of Understanding on Military Affairs
On 6 August 2018, President Filipe Nyusi and Coordinator of the National Political Commission of Renamo Ossufo Momade signed a MoU on Military Affairs – one year after Nyusi’s historic first face-to-face meeting with the late President of Renamo, Afonso Dhlakama, in Gorongosa. The MoU, the first nationally and jointly agreed DDR agreement since the signing of the peace accord in 1992, outlined the road map on military affairs and the subsequent steps crucial to achieving an effective and lasting peace in Mozambique.
The MoU provides the framework for the placement of officers from Renamo in the Mozambique Defence Forces (FADM) and Police of the Republic of Mozambique (PRM) structures. This process seeks to build confidence between the Parties.
With the aim of ensuring security and stability in the country, and to build an environment of trust and reconciliation amongst Mozambicans, the MoU also outlines the DDR process of Renamo combatants. DDR is defined as:
- Disarmament: The process of collection, handing over and disposal of arms and ordnance in possession of Renamo combatants;
- Demobilization: The process of passing to civilian life of Renamo former combatants that are not commissioned in the FADM;
- Reintegration: The process of socio-economic reintegration of Renamo former combatants, duly demobilized.
On 23 May 2018, Parliament unanimously approved a revision of the constitution to deepen decentralisation as part of the peace negotiations between the Government and Renamo. The bill provides administrative and financial autonomy for municipal, provincial and district bodies, while issues of national interest such as defence, security and natural resources will continue to be managed at the central level.